The following resources include recent, high-quality materials to help policymakers understand surprise medical bill issues. These resources include links to studies, legislative analysis, quantitative and qualitative research, congressional testimony, stakeholder perspectives, and other materials.

You can access resources that are specific for state issues, federal issues, and stakeholder issues by using the left-hand navigation or the lists below. Not sure where to start? Consider our “starter” reading list to get more up to speed on surprise medical bills.

Please choose the type of resource needed to access information:

General Resources

Just getting up to speed on surprise medical bills? Start with our general resources. These resources explore the underlying cause of this complex issue.

Quantitative Resources

Want to know what the data says? Check out our quantitative resources, which feature the latest data on surprise medical bills.

State Resources

Looking for analysis of state efforts to address surprise medical bills? These state resources highlight surprise medical bill laws across the country and in specific states—from New York to Texas.

No Surprises Act Resources

Want to dive deeper on the No Surprises Act? This page includes dedicated resources on the new law and implementing regulations.

Federal Resources

Congress debated protections against surprise medical bills for years before adopting comprehensive legislation. Check out our federal resources to find analysis of prior proposals, congressional testimony, and more.

Stakeholder Resources

Many health care stakeholders—ranging from hospitals to insurance companies to patient advocates—have weighed in on surprise medical bill issues. Our stakeholder resources help policymakers wade through what these groups say on the issues.